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Chapter 2 Language and Rhetoric
Syntactic ambiguity refers to the sentence structure could lead to misunderstanding.
Vague terms may be used to hide weakness in an argument.
Secondary connotations of terms that go beyond the necessary requirements to be that term
Quantifiers often lack precision (“nearly all”) are vague (“some”) or lacking entirely (“researchers say”) or are generalizations
Rhetorical ploys like an appeal to popularity
Equivocation–using vagueness to substitute and mislead

Begin by discerning if language is rhetoric or argument, p7-8; reconstruct an argument as simply as possible, and evaluate the claim (conclusion) with support (premise) or the recommendation. Note the context of the argument, which can prove the conclusion false or true circumstantially. Rhetoric is the window dressing, p10. Implicature–the implied aspects of meaning employed to stimulate response. Something meets a definition if it meets the necessary and significant conditions to be true. Lots of definitions here…

p20-21 An argument differs from an explanation in that it does not assume that the listener agrees with the ‘givenness’ of the statement. Justification is reason why the argument is reasonable.

It is one of the great truisms of our time that we live in an age of technolog-ical acceleration; the new paradigms keep rolling in, and the intervals between them keep shortening. The acceleration reflects not only the flood of new products, but also our growing willingness to embrace these strange new devices, and put them to use.

The 10/10 rule: 10 years to build a new technology/platform; plus 10 years to roll out to a new audience. However that rule is out the window in a web environment. YouTube revolutionized video on the web and was successful in two years with a new 1/1 rule (with $10 million start-up capital, like that’s super easy…) p11-16

The city and the web as environments that foster innovations as areas suited for the “creation, diffusion, and adoption of good ideas.” where an ”entrepreneur theorist” can thrive. p16-17

Stuart Kauffman calls first-order changes “the adjacent possible” p31. Darwin and Berners-Lee as examples of note taker and researcher and tinkerer who made conclusions later based on hunches, not at the time. An accretive development (in B-L’s words.) Importance of documenting your work. To examine the “evolutionary path of all your past hunches” p87

If we are specific in our searches, we may miss adjacent possibilities, ideas just off our radar (search engine).

p142 Nemeth: Good ideas emerge in environments with noise and error.

p231 The Fourth Quadrant: ideas emerging by “collective invention” without market incentive (which causes people to protect their inventions.) Academic environments, open source, info flow